#48 Les Sapeurs: Gentlemen of the Congo–Guest Blog by Eccentric Yoruba

Modern day dandies–Gentlemen of Bakongo, Brazzaville. Image courtesy of Daniele Tamagni. Click for link.

Dandyism and the Black Man

A dandy is a man who places extreme importance on physical appearance and refined language. It is very possible that dandies have existed for as long as time itself. According to Charles Baudelaire, 19th century French poet and dandy himself, a dandy can also be described as someone who elevates aesthetics to a religion.

In the late 18th and early 19th century Britain, being a dandy was not only about looking good but also about men from the middle class being self-made and striving to emulate an aristocratic lifestyle.  The Scarlet Pimpernel is one of literature’s greatest dandies; famous historical dandies include Oscar Wilde and Lord Byron.

These days the practice of dandyism also includes a nostalgic longing for ideals such as that of the perfect gentleman. The dandy almost always required an audience and was admired for his style and impeccable manners by the general public.

The special relationship between black men and dandyism arose with slavery in Europe particularly during England’s Enlightenment period. In early 18th century, masters who wanted their slaves to reflect their social stature imposed dandified costumes on black servants, effectively turning them into ‘luxury slaves’. As black slaves gained more liberty, they took control of the image by customising their dandy uniforms and thereby creating a unique style. They transformed from black men in dandy clothing to dandies who were black.

This style also served to differentiate black dandies from other dandies, most notably, the Macaroni dandies whose fabulous style of dress was thought of as obscene.

Example of a Macaroni dandy. Image courtesy of The Black Tie Guide. Click for link.

One of the pioneers of black dandies in England was Julius Soubise, a fencing master, poet and actor who was once owned by the Duchess of Queensbury. Julius Soubise would appear at London’s high society venues wearing “red-heeled diamond-buckled shoes and buttock-skimming breeches”.

Julius Soubise. Image courtesy of ARISE magazine. Click for link.

This type of style evolved and hopped continents from London to Harlem, which during its famous Jazz Age adopted the zoot suit. The zoot suit marked the evolution of black dandyism in the 1930s. The “zoot” from the zoot suit came from the term in jazz culture that described anything performed in an extravagant fashion. Jazz musicians such as Duke Ellington, Louis Jordan and Cab Calloway sported zoot suits and the suit itself became central to any dandy’s wardrobe.

Though today the most famous black dandies are Americans like Andre 3000, black dandyism can also be found in other parts of the world. In particular, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, there currently exists a subculture of elegant gentlemen who spend their last dime on looking good and live under strict moral codes.

Those of us who grew up listening to and watching music videos from the DRC are quite used to seeing the expensive-looking and multi-coloured suits worn by Congolese musicians such as Koffi Olomide. Yet most of us did not know about the entire subculture that revolves around looking exquisite. May I present La Société des Ambianceurs et Persons Élégants or in English: the Society for the Advancement of People of Elegance.

Stylish men of the SAPE. Image courtesy of Daniele Tamagni. Click for link.

As that is a mouthful so it is just SAPE. “Sape” comes from a French slang that means “dressing with class” and the term Sapeur is an African word that refers to someone that is dressed with great elegance. The Sapeurs as the name suggests are elegant and stylish men from Congo who roam the streets of Brazzaville and Bacongo in Western suits and usually with cigars, and the occasional pipe, between their lips. These are men who are so obsessed with looking good and designer clothes that they sometimes place more importance on clothes than anything else.

A look at the history of the SAPE

The first Grand Sapeur was G.A. Matsoua, who in 1922 was the first Congolese to return from Paris dressed entirely in French clothes. While it is not entirely clear where exactly the SAPE movement started from, it appears to have been heavily promoted by Papa Wemba, a pioneer soukous (African rumba) musician who in the 1970s began upholding the Sapeur culture as a set of moral codes with heavy emphasis on high standards of personal cleanliness, hygiene and smart dress among Congolese youths regardless of societal differences.

This moral code, however, also had a political motive. Papa Wemba initially introduced the culture as a challenge to the strict dress codes that were imposed by the government at that time who effectively outlawed Western styles of dress. In 1974 after the DRC had recently come out of colonisation and had gained its independence from France, the government lead by Mobutu Sese Seko banned all European and Western styles of imported clothing in favour of a return to traditional African clothing. Papa Wemba challenged these strict dress codes by insisting that it should be a pleasure rather than a crime to wear clothes from Paris and by setting an example for impressionable young men by dressing outlandishly. At this time, the culture also was heavily associated with music, since Papa Wemba supported young talented musicians such as Koffi Olomide.

Standing out from the crowd. Image courtesy of Daniele Tamagni, The Telegraph. Click for link.

Sapeurs held European haute couture as a religion which was practised in absolute serious. There were special Sapeur dances held and even manifestos and codes to govern the lives of Sapeurs. Some of these codes include 10 ways of walking in order to show off clothes to the best degree, and the strict three colour code where the maximum number of colours that can be worn should be three.

At the height of his success, Papa Wemba had established a “village” comprising his family home and the surrounding streets in which the strict Sapeur code was enforced. Youths and musicians visited this village to acquire cool points while Papa Wemba reigned as “chief”. All other sorts of positions exist among the Sapeurs such as “high priest of cloth” and “chancellor of designer labels” positions which are based on personal flamboyance and the size of expensive wardrobes.

Sapeur fashion. Image courtesy of Daniele Tamagni. Click for link.

In typical dandy fashion, the Sapeurs consider themselves artists and are respected and admired in their communities. Sapeurs are typically invited to events such as weddings to add a touch of elegance to special occasions. Yet quite uncharacteristic is the Sapeur’s code of conduct, being a Sapeur is not only about dressing and looking amazing, it is also about impeccable manners. It is about style, it is about gestures that differentiate one Sapeur from others.

For example, the cigar which is the ultimate symbol for the Sapeur is considered to give added value to the outfit. While some Sapeurs never smoke their cigars, those who do are required to ask their neighbours if it is okay for them to light their cigars even though they may not be in a non-smoking area.

Do you mind if I smoke? Image courtesy of Daniele Tamagni. Click for link.

The dark side to this movement is the lengths some Sapeurs go and have gone through to get their expensive designer clothes. Some have resorted to illegal means to obtain their suits while others have spent time in jail. The infamous Papa Wemba also spent jail time for bringing people into Europe illegally to buy clothes by having them pose as his band members. While reading about Sapeurs elsewhere online, a lot of emphasis seems to be placed on the fact that most of the men who are part of this subculture come from very impoverished communities. There is lot of talk on just how far these men go in order to buy an expensive suit and how the SAPE is a form of escapism for “poor downtrodden African youths”. The discrepancy between the elegance and style that make a Sapeur and the poor conditions of living are shown as a clash of worlds.

Lone elegance. Image courtesy of Hector Mediavilla. Click for link.

This sort of thinking rubs me the wrong way. I personally believe the Sapeurs are awesome and this is not limited to the steampunk vibe I got from looking at images of Sapeurs. However, whether you believe the Sapeurs are nothing but extremely materialistic young men or you accept that they are artists who strive to crave their identity through fashion, I think we can all agree that they do so while looking great.

A proud sapeur. Image courtesy of Daniele Tamagni. Click for link.

For more information, click on any of the linked images above. Also, check out this great photo essay, The Congolese Sape by Hector Mediavilla.


Eccentric Yoruba is a really not that strange regardless of what her alias may suggest. She spends her days writing and blogging at Curiosity Killed The Eccentric Yoruba and Dreamwidth.

Note: Edited 11/15/2010 for photo credits, to be sure that the proper photographers are credited.


Filed under Essays

25 responses to “#48 Les Sapeurs: Gentlemen of the Congo–Guest Blog by Eccentric Yoruba

  1. Pingback: Tweets that mention #48 Les Sapeurs: Gentlemen of the Congo–Guest Blog by Eccentric Yoruba « Beyond Victoriana -- Topsy.com

  2. I mistook this for one of my style blogs at first! Thanks for sharing. That is some amazing fashion.

  3. Jha

    The photo essay’s commentary is fascinating. It seems to be a very male-centric aesthetic movement, too, which is also interesting, in contrast with Western society today which places so much pressure to be beautiful on women. And somehow, despite the European cut of the clothes, these men look completely at home with the background which is variously war-torn. The comment “there is Sape only when there is peace” is incredible – so much to unpack re: how aesthetics can only flourish with the means and how only certain people can have means during wartime and Sape, which opens itself to men of all classes, can only distribute its aesthetics equally during peacetime.

    Thanks for this intriguing, thought-provoking write-up! ❤

  4. Mindful of Jha’s post on Tor, I love the sort of counter-colonization of European men’s fashion going on here. As noted, those suits are specific statements in a political dialog, but they’re not necessarily an endorsement of anything European so much as a rejection of Sese Seko. For some number, possibly most if not all, of these people, white folk simply aren’t a part of the dialog! We just have some stuff they can use for their ends.

  5. Pingback: World Spinner

  6. Dapper stuff indeed and I doff my hat to Dandies and Fops everywhere…

  7. Something of the black dandy in this Tony Bennett video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=St0HZCdPVx8

  8. This is fascinating and compelling. There’s much to chew on, but on a superficial level, I see much in common between SAPE and the almost neurotic attention black American men pay to their physical appearance. I remember going to high school with a guy who matched everything–shoes, jeans, shirt, jacket, hat–every day (and he was proud to never be caught in the same outfit twice in one month), and later on, seeing how much effort my brothers put into their clothing (much more than I the bookworm, did, despite my love of fashion!). It’s almost a living embodiment of the phrase “clothes make the man,” except it is taken to the extreme–presenting yourself as the man you want to be, though you aren’t rolling in dough or have your life together.

  9. A tip of the hat to “les Sapeur”. Heroic.

  10. Pingback: Guest Contributor at Beyond Victoriana « curiosity killed the eccentric yoruba

  11. Pingback: Kinshasa Informer

  12. Pingback: two interesting things that aren’t very crafty « Pippa Alice

  13. Pingback: Les Sapeurs: Gentlemen Of The Congo | Racialicious - the intersection of race and pop culture

  14. Thanks so much for the love! I had a great time researching into the Sape culture and writing this.

  15. Greetings! I found this site from racialicious.com’s posting of this same article. Here’s a portion of the comment that I wrote there:

    Regarding African dandies-though not as colorful as les Sapeurs:

    Male singing groups competing in isicathamiya, a cappella performances of South African music, were and still are natty dressers. For instance, check out the attire of Solomon Linda in his photo found on his Wikipedia page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Linda
    Solomon Linda is the composer of “Mbube” (which later became the hit song “The Lion Sleeps Tonight” or “Wimoweh”)

    According to the book “African Stars: Studies in Black African Performance” (Veit Erlmann; Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991) and other sources, to a considerable extent, the formal clothing styles worn by those South African a cappella groups was influenced by African American dapper dressed minstrel groups who performed in South African and remained there for some years. You can still see that influence in the white gloves worn by isicathamiya singers in this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hWkIsSKWhWc

  16. Stunning images! I adore the post so much! 😉

  17. R

    You really need to credit Daniele Tamagni for these iconic photos!

    • I know that one of the images above is Tamagni’s (which is credited), but I shall double-check the sources Eccentric Yoruba gave me to be sure that all of the proper photos are credited (they had come from various sites, which I had linked the images to).

      Because these are all wonderful photos that should be properly credited!

  18. The pictures are definitely iconic and I like EY’s commentary interesting even if I personally find the sapeurs controversial

  19. Entertaining and informative post! I was looking around on the web for a post about this and this is the initial great one I have read.

  20. Pingback: …Les Sapeurs… | klandestino

  21. Pingback: Les Sapeurs « Incessant Whining

  22. Christine

    Great article! quick correction — La Société des Ambianceurs et Persons Élégants actually doesn’t translate cleanly. In English, it’s closer to “The Society for Tastemakers and Elegant People.” Ambianceur is a neologism coined in francophone Africa, and actually means something closer to “ambiance-creator” or “taste-maker”…

  23. Pingback: Solange: «Losing You» (Melina Matsoukas, 2011) | mv flux

  24. Pingback: 2012 in Review | Beyond Victoriana