QUAINT #4 Kala Persad from “The Divinations of Kala Persad” by Francis Edward Grainger

Kala Persad was created by “Headon Hill” and appeared in The Divinations of Kala Persad (1895), a collection of short stories. “Headon Hill” was the pseudonym of Francis Edward Grainger (1857-1924), an English author of romance, mystery, and detective fiction.

Kala Persad is a wizened old Indian man, “at least sixty…he must have been a grown man as far back as the Mutiny days.” Persad is being pursued by a trio of “bad Mahometan budmásh” (evildoers) when he stumbles across Mark Poignand, an Englishman who has come to India to investigate possible murder attempts against a friend. Poignand, an overly-self-assured young man, does not do much to save Persad. Poignand simply stands there and watches as the murderers, “seeing that they had a Sahib to deal with, vanished without more ado across the adjoining fields.” Persad is so grateful for Poignand’s “help” that he solves the mystery of who was trying to kill Poignand’s friend. After that, Poignand presumes on Persad’s gratitude and returns to England with him.

Poignand sets up a “Confidential Advice” agency and begins solving mysteries. He uses Persad’s intellect to find the answer to the mysteries and catch the criminals, and then claims all the credit for solving the case. The division of labor between Poignand and Persad is simple: Persad explains who is committing the crime, and then Poignand does the legwork, assembling the evidence and confronting the wrongdoer.

Persad is smart. He is a Hindu and snake charmer from the “hills below Mahabuleshwar” who, before meeting Poignand, was a combination of village detective and wise man. Kala Persad can read darker riddles than a man’s face:

“In my own gaum in the hills below Mahabuleshwar my words were much sought by those who wish to learn secrets. When any person killed, or bullock stolen…patel come to me and I give him khabar–news–of the bad man.”

Plenty people hanged in Tanna jail through Kala Persad’s talk.

Persad is equally successful in his crime-solving in London. His method is to simply apply “common sense” and a few simply dictums to the crime, and then reason out the criminal from there. The phrases he uses to guide him include: “Where there is a wound on the black heart of man, there is the place to look for crime,” “From the still adder comes the most danger,” and “When two curious things happen close together, they bound to have to do with each other.”

The Persad stories are Grainger’s best work. Poignand is unlikable, perhaps deliberately written so by Grainger, but Persad is clever, and the way in which the crimes are solved are usually entertaining. Persad is also the first recurring non-white detective in mainstream mystery fiction. (Dime novels occasionally featured non-white detectives, but they only ever appeared once).

Detectives who were neither English nor American have existed as long as the mystery genre has, but fictional detectives in the 19th century were all European and white. Persad was the first who was neither. This paucity of non-white detectives would change in the 20th century, with Chinese detectives appearing in Chinese mysteries and Latin American detectives appearing in Latin American mysteries in the 1910s, and Earl Derr Biggers publishing his Charlie Chan novels in the 1920s.

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2 responses to “QUAINT #4 Kala Persad from “The Divinations of Kala Persad” by Francis Edward Grainger

  1. Jess Nevins

    Before anyone says anything–I should have written, “but fictional detectives IN AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN DETECTIVE LITERATURE in the 19th century were all European and white.” Obviously there was a large amount of mystery and detective fiction in India with Indian detectives.

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